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Our principles are based on scientific facts and findings. This applies to both, biomechanics in device designs, as well as to training principles. We have conducted several validation and outcome studies over the past 25 years. On this page you will find studies relating to biomechanics, medicine and economics which we have carried out with David devices as well as studies supporting approach towards active therapy.

Our research shows that especially with musculoskeletal disorders, specific strength training with isolated movements has significant improvements on pain levels and over all health. We base our ideas and vision to vast number of studies which strongly indicate that regular physical activity in all age groups has positive health benefits. We believe that active, measurable and precise exercise together with a cost-effective mindset is the answer to the future´s physiotherapy.

It is important that we monitor in particular muscular function. If muscles, that’s the majority of human body, are in good shape and we can monitor, quantify and qualify it, we will see improvements in other functions of the human body as well."

Prof. Jiri Dvorak, MD
Senior Consultant Schulthess Clinic, Zurich

Videos, images & Literatures source from: DAVID Finland.


Taimela S, Negrini S, Paroli C. Functional rehabilitation of low back disorders. Eur Med Phys 2004; 40: 29‐36

Ville Leinonen, MD, Markku Kankaanpää, DMSc, Matti Luukkonen, MD, Martti Kansanen, DMSc,Osmo Hänninen, DMSc, PhD, Olavi Airaksinen, DMSc, and Simo Taimela, DMSc. Lumbar Paraspinal Muscle Function, Perception of Lumbar Position, and Postural Control in Disc Herniation‐Related Back Pain. SPINE 2003 Volume 28, Number 8, pp 842–848

Leinonen V, Määttä S, Taimela S, Herno A, Kankaanpää M, Partanen J, Kansanen M, Hänninen O, Airaksinen O. Impaired Lumbar Movement Perception in Association with Postural Stability and Motor‐ and Somatosensory‐Evoked Potentials in Lumbar Spine Stenosis. Spine 2002; 27: 975‐983

Ville Leinonen, Markku Kankaanpää, Osmo Hänninen, Olavi Airaksinen, Simo Taimela. Paraspinal muscle responses during sudden upper limb loading. Eur J Appl Physiol (2002) 88: 42–49

Leena Timonen, Taina Rantanen, Olli‐Pekka Ryynänen, Simo Taimela, Tero E. Timonen, Raimo Sulkava. A randomized controlled trial of rehabilitation after hospitalization in frail older women: effects on strength, balance and mobility. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2002: 12: 186–192

Rissanen A, Heliövaara M, Alaranta H, Taimela S, Mälkiä E, Knekt P, Reunanen A, Aromaa A. Does Good Trunk Extensor Performance Protect Against Back‐Releated Work Disability? J Rehabil Med 2002; 34: 62‐66.

Leinonen V, Kankanpää M, Luukkonen M, Hänninen O, Airaksinen O, Taimela S. Disc Herniation‐Related Back Pain Impairs Feed‐Forward Control of Paraspinal Muscles. Spine 2001; 26(16): E367‐72.

Mannion AF, Muntener M, Taimela S, Dvorak J. Comparison of Three Active Therapies for Chronic Low Back Pain: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial with One‐year Follow‐up. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2001 Jul;40(7): 772‐8

Mannion A, Taimela S, Müntener M, Dvorak j. Active Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain 1. Effect on Back Muscle Activation, Fatigability, and Stength. Spine 2001; 26: 897‐908.

Käser L, Mannion A, Rhyner A, Weber E, Dvorak J, Müntener M. Active Therapy for Chronic Low Pack Pain Part 2. Effects on Paraspinal Muscle Cross‐Setional Area, Fiber Type Size, and Distribution. Spine 2001; 26: 909‐919

Mannion A, Junge A, Tamela S, Müntener M, Lorenzo K, Dvorak J. Active Therapy for Chronic Low Pack Pain Part 3. Factors Influencing Self‐Rated Disability and Its Change Following Therapy. Spine 2001; 26: 920‐929.

Peolsson A, Oberg B, Hedlund R. Intra‐ and Inter‐Tester Reliablility and Reference Values for Isometric Neck Strength; Physiother Res Int 2001; 6(1): 15‐26

Taimela S, Didrich C, Heinrichy M. The role of physical exercise inactivity on low back pain recurrence and absenteeism from work after active outpatient rehabilitation for recurrent‐chronic LBP: A follow‐up study. Spine 2000; 25: 1809‐1816.

Taimela S, Takala E‐P, Asklöf T, Seppälä K, Parviainen S. Active treatment of chronic neck trouble: A prospective randomized intervention with multi‐modal treatment emphasizing proprioceptive training, neck lecture and activated home exercises, and neck lecture with a recommendation of exercise. Spine 2000; 25: 1021‐1027.

Mannion AF, Muntener M, Taimela S, Dvorak J. Volvo 1999 award: A randomized clinical trial of three active therapies for chronic low back pain. Spine 1999; 24: 2435‐2448.

Taimela S, Kankaanpää M, Luoto S. The effect of lumbar fatigue on the ability to sense a change in lumbar position. A controlled study. Spine 1999; 24: 1322‐1327.

Kankaanpää M, Taimela S, Airaksinen O, Hänninen O. The efficacy of active rehabilitation in chronic low back pain. Effect on pain intensity, self‐experienced disability and lumbar fatigability. Spine 1999; 24: 1034‐1042.

Luoto S, Taimela S, Hurri H, Alaranta H. Mechanisms explaining the association between low back trouble and deficits in information processing. A controlled study with follow‐up. Spine 1999; 24:255‐261.

Arokoski JP, Kankaanpää M, Valta T, Juvonen I, Partanen J, Taimela S, et al. Back and hip extensor muscle function during therapeutic exercises. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 1999; 80: 842‐850.

Luoto S, Aalto H, Taimela S, Hurri H, Pyykkö I, Alaranta H. One‐footed and externally disturbed two‐footed postural control in patients with chronic low back pain and healthy control subjects. A controlled study with follow‐up. Spine 1998; 23: 2081‐2089, discussion 2089‐2090.

Taimela S, Kankaanpää M, Airaksinen OV. A submaximal back endurance test utilising subjective perception of low back fatigue. Scand. J. Rehab. Med. 1998; 30: 107‐112.

Kankaanpää M, Taimela S, Airaksinen O. Reference change limits of the paraspinal spectral EMG in evaluation of low back rehabilitation. Pathophysiology 1998; 5: 217‐224.

Peltonen JE, Taimela S, Erkintalo M, Salminen JJ, Oksanen A, Kujala UM. Back extensor and psoas muscle cross‐sectional area, prior physical training and trunk muscle strength ‐ a longitudinal study in adolescent girls. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 1998; 77: 66‐71.

Kankaanpää M, Laaksonen D, Taimela S, Kokko SM, Airaksinen OV, Hänninen OO. Age, sex and body mass index as determinants of back and hip extensor fatigue in isometric Sørensen back endurance test. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 1998; 79: 1069‐1075.

Kankaanpää M, Taimela S, Laaksonen D, Airaksinen OV, Hänninen OO. Back and hip extensor fatigability in chronic low back pain patients and controls. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 1998; 79: 412‐417.

Laurén H, Luoto S, Alaranta H, Taimela S, Hurri H, Heliövaara M. Arm motion speed and risk of neck pain. Spine 1997; 22: 2094‐2099.

Taimela S, Kujala UM, Salminen JJ, Viljanen T. The prevalence of low‐back pain among children and adolescents ‐ A nation‐wide cohort‐based questionnaire survey in Finland. Spine 1997; 22: 1132‐1136.

Taimela S, Chronische Schmerzen des unteren Rückens. Prinzipen und prognostische Faktoren

gymnastischer Ûbungen. Manuelle Medizin, 1997; 35: 194‐205.

Kankaanpää M, Taimela S, Webber CL, Airaksinen OV, Hänninen OO. Lumbar paraspinal muscle fatigability in repetitive isoinertial loading: EMG spectral indices, Borg scale and endurance time. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 1997; 76: 236‐242.

Kujala UM, Oksanen A, Taimela S, Salminen JJ. Training does not increase maximal extension position of the healthy back. Clin. Biomech. 1997; 12: 181‐184.

Luoto S, Taimela S, Hurri H, Aalto H, Pyykkö I, Alaranta H. Psychomotor speed and postural control in chronic low‐back patients: A controlled follow‐up study. Spine 1996; 21: 2621‐2627.

Taimela S, Härkäpää K. Strength, mobility, their changes and pain reduction in active functional restoration for chronic low back disorders. J. Spin. Disord. 1996; 9: 306‐312.

Kujala UM, Taimela S, Videman T, Battie MC, Viljanen T. Physical loading and performance as predictors of back pain in healthy adults. A 5‐year prospective study. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 1996; 73:452‐458.


Peltonen H, Häkkinen K, Avela J. Neuromuscular responses to different resistance loading protocols using pneumatic and weightstackdevices. J Electromyogr Kinesiol (2012) 

Häkkinen K, Komi P.V, Kauhanen H.  Scientific Evaluation of Specific Loading of the Knee Extensors with Variable Resistance, ‘Isokinetic’ and Barbell Exercises. Medicine Sport Sci.vol. 26, pp. 224-237 (Karger, Basel 1987) 

Jonas Isberg, Eva Faxén, Sveinbjörn Brandsson, Bengt I. Eriksson, ohan Kärrholm, Jon Karlsson.  Early active extension after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction does not result in increased laxity of the knee. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc (2006) 14:1108–1115 

Trees AH, Howe TE, Dixon J, White L.Exercise for treating isolated anterior cruciate ligament injuries in adults (Review).The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue

ZHOU Mou-wang, GU Li, CHEN Ya-ping, YU Chang-long, AO Ying-fang, HUANG Hong-shi and YANG Yan-yan. Factors affecting proprioceptive recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.Chin Med J 2008;121(22):2224-2228

M. A. Kessler, H. Behrend, S. Henz, G. Stutz, A. Rukavina, M. S. Kuster.Function, osteoarthritis and activity after ACL-rupture: 11 years follow-up results of conservative versus reconstructive treatment. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc (2008) 16:442–448

Braden C. Fleming, Heidi Oksendahl, and Bruce D. Beynnon. Open- or Closed-Kinetic Chain Exercises After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction? Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev., Vol. 33,     No. 3, pp. 134–140, 2005

I Eitzen, I Holm and M A Risberg. Preoperative quadriceps strength is a significant predictor of knee function two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Br. J. Sports Med. 2009;43;371-376; originally published online 17 Feb 2009

May Arna Risberg, Havard Moksnes, Annika Storevold, Inger Holm and Lynn Snyder-Mackler. Rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament injury influence joint loading during walking but not hopping. Br. J. Sports Med. published online 8 Mar 2009

Nicholas P Bent, Chris C Wright, Alison B Rushton and Mark E Batt Selecting Outcome Measures in Sports Medicine: A Guide for Practitioners Using the Example of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rehabilitation Br. J. Sports Med. published online 17 Feb 2009

Linko E, Harilainen A, Malmivaara A, Seitsalo S Surgical versus conservative interventions for anterior cruciate ligament ruptures in adults (Review) The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2

Bruce D. Beynnon, PhD; Robert J. Johnson, MD and Braden C. Fleming, PhD The Science of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rehabilitation CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Number 402, pp. 9–20

Lan Chen, Paul D. Kim, Christopher S. Ahmad, William N. Levine Medial collateral ligament injuries of the knee: current treatment concepts. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med (2008) 1:108–113

Hong Chul Lim, Ji Hoon Bae, Joon Ho Wang, Chang Woo Seok, Min Keun Kim Non-operative treatment of degenerative posterior root tear of the medial meniscus. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc DOI 10.1007/s00167-009-0891-0

Sylvia Herrlin, Maria Hållander, Peter Wange, Lars Weidenhielm, Suzanne Werner Arthroscopic or conservative treatment of degenerative medial meniscal tears: a prospective randomised trial. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc (2007) 15:393–401

Todd Rimington, MD; Krishna Mallik, MD; Douglas Evans, MD; Kenneth Mroczek, MD; Bruce Reider, MD Prospective Study of the Nonoperative Treatment of Degenerative Meniscus Tears. ORTHOPEDICS 2009; 32:558

Peter J McNair, Marian A Simmonds, Mark G Boocock, Peter J Larmer Exercise therapy for the management of osteoarthritis of the hip joint: a systematic review. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2009, 11:R98

M. DI MONACO, F. VALLERO, R. TAPPERO, A. CAVANNA Rehabilitation after total hip arthroplasty: a systematic review of controlled trial on physical exercise programs.                   EUR J PHYS REHABIL MED 2009;45

Andrew L. Miner, BS,* Elizabeth A. Lingard, BPhty, MPhil, MPH,† Elizabeth A. Wright, PhD,* Clement B. Sledge, MD,† Jeffrey N. Katz, MD,* and the Kinemax Outcomes Group‡ Knee Range of Motion After Total Knee Arthroplasty: How Important Is This as an Outcome Measure? The Journal of Arthroplasty Vol. 18 No. 3 2003


Preoperative Quadriceps Strength Predicts Functional Ability One Year After Total Knee Arthroplasty. The Journal of Rheumatology 2005; 32:8

Thomas, Anthony, Eichenberger, Gary, Kempton, Curtis, Pape, Darin, York, Sarah, Decker, Ann Marie, Kohia, Mohamed Recommendations for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis, Using Various Therapy Techniques, Based on Categorizations of a Literature Review Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 2009

Young Bok Jung, Suk Kee Tae, Yong Seuk Lee, Ho Joong Jung, Chang Hyun Nam, Se Jin Park  Active non-operative treatment of acute isolated posterior cruciate ligament injury with cylinder cast immobilization. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc (2008) 16:729–733

Matthew J. Grassmayra,∗, David A. Parkerb, Myles R.J. Coolicanb, Benedicte Vanwanseelea Posterior cruciate ligament deficiency: Biomechanical and biological consequences and the outcomes of conservative treatment. A systematic review. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport (2008) 11, 433—443


Ketola S, Lehtinen J, Arnala I, Nissinen M, Westenius H, Sintonen H, Aronen P, Konttinen YT, Malmivaara A, Rousi T.  Does arthroscopic acromioplasty provide any additional value in the treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome? A two-year randomised controlled trial.            J Bone Joint Surg Br 2009 Oct;91(10):1326-1334. 

Ketola S, Lehtinen J, Rousi T, Nissinen M, Huhtala H, Konttinen YT, Arnala I.  No evidence of long-term benefits of arthroscopic acromioplasty in the treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome: Five-year results of a randomised controlled trial.  Bone Joint Res 2013 Jul 1;2(7):132-139. 

Ketola S, Lehtinen J, Arnala I.  Nonoperative treatment proven superior to decompression in the treatment of anterolateral shoulder pain. A randomised controlled 12-year follow-up.  Submitted. 

Hannah, Daniel Cason A Comparison of Strength and Resistance Curves for the Internal and External Rotators of the Shoulder. (2002). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 680.